It began as a tale of two cities. One—Phoenix, Arizona—is the fifth largest city in the United States with a population of 1.6 million in the arid southwestern desert. The other—Hazleton, Pennsylvania—is a small, rural town with a population of 31,000 in the cold stretches of the Northeast. Yet despite their differences, these two cities shared a common problem: illegal immigration. When both communities decided to draw a line in the sand, creating state and local barriers to illegal immigration, they entered into a legal borderland filled with uncertainty.