The past two decades have seen life in America dramatically altered by the digital revolution. Minors, including both small children and mature adolescents, are increasingly involved in online activities that generate profits for online service providers (OSPs). According to recent studies, approximately ninety-five percent of teens ages twelve to seventeen were online in 2011, seventy percent go online daily, and nearly fifty percent go online several times a day. Eighty percent of those online teens used social network sites. Providers of such “free” web services do so intending to recover their costs and make significant profit from advertisements and other monetized features. Economic incentives drive OSPs to increase their teen user base, as well as their adult user base. In addition, because of youths’ widespread online presence, combined with increasing access to money, “children comprise a significant segment of online consumers, a segment that is rapidly enlarging.” According to a 2010 Pew Research Center Internet study, “48% of wired teens have bought things online like books, clothing or music.” The most popular sites for minors include eBay, Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and MySpace, and almost three million minors make purchases online every month.  . . .

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